Systemic lupus erythematosus
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the most common type of lupus, is associated with inflammation of multiple organ systems throughout the body. Diagnosis of lupus is challenging due to a range of symptoms that can affect the kidneys, lungs, skin, nervous system and musculoskeletal system.
A report submitted by the National Arthritis Data Working Group estimated that SLE affects 250,000 Americans and is more common in females of childbearing age; however, it can affect men or women at any age. The highest prevalence occurs in women, African-Americans and persons between 20 and 40 years of age. Although the cause of SLE is not known, it can be triggered by exposure to sunlight and certain drugs. A potential genetic link has been identified, in which people who carry a specific form of the genes for both Bcl-2 and IL-10, an immune signaling molecule, are at significant risk of developing SLE. In many cases an autoimmune reaction, where the immune system attacks itself, may be present and detectable years before the symptoms are apparent. This increase in autoimmune activity is helpful in diagnosing the disease.
Although SLE is often associated with inflammatory arthritis and a butterfly-shaped facial rash, it is more common for individuals with SLE to have other symptoms. These can include fatigue, malaise (a general feeling that you aren’t well), oral ulcers, skin rashes that appear after exposure to sunlight, chest pains, headache, sensations of burning, tickling or itching on the skin, dry eyes and mouth, discoloration of toes and fingers in the cold and mild hair loss. There can also be a problem with any one of a patient’s major organs.
 National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Handout on Health: Rheumatoid Arthritis. 2014. http://www.niams.nih.gov/health_info/rheumatic_disease/. Accessed May 25, 2016.
 Brennan FM, McInnes IB. Evidence that cytokines play a role in rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Invest. 2008;118(11):3537-3545.
 Van Vollenhoven RF. Sex differences in rheumatoid arthritis: more than meets the eye. BMC Med. 2009;7(1):12.
 Srikesavan CS, Shay B, Szturm T. Test-retest reliability and convergent validity of a computer based hand function test protocol in people with arthritis. Open Orthop J. 2015;9:57-67.
 Southwood T, Szer I. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. In: ABC of Rheumatology. Vol Wiley; 2010:Chapter 15. https://books.google.com/books?id=ehnQn0VZZ3kC&pg=PT201&lpg=PT201&dq=abc+of+rheumatology+juvenile+idiopathic+arthritis&source=bl&ots=wKwH_awciB&sig=Hhc01Wt9Mmrd8QiqqTvgjhe4sxo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAmoVChMI59j_tvu3xwIViReSCh1JOgjL#v=onepage&q=abc. Accessed May 25, 2016.
 National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Questions and Answers About Juvenile Arthritis. 2015. http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Juv_Arthritis/default.asp. Accessed May 25, 2016.
 Chang HJ, Burke AE, Glass RM. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. JAMA. 2010;303(13):1328.
 Thierry S, Fautrel B, Lemelle I, Guillemin F. Prevalence and incidence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a systematic review. Joint Bone Spine. 2014;81(2):112-117.
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Childhood Arthritis. 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/childhood.htm. Accessed May 25, 2016.
 Malviya A, Johnson-Lynn S, Avery P, Deehan D, Foster H. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis in adulthood and orthopaedic intervention. Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28(12):1411-1417.
 Ding T, Hall A, Jacobs K, David J. Psychological functioning of children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis is related to physical disability but not to disease status. Rheumatology. 2008;47(5):660-664.
 Daikh DI, Chen PP. Advances in managing ankylosing spondylitis. F1000Prime Rep. 2014;6:78.
 WebMD. Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis. 2015. http://www.webmd.com/back-pain/guide/ankylosing-spondylitis. Accessed May 25, 2016.
 Brent LH. Ankylosing Spondylitis and Undifferentiated Spondyloarthropathy. Medscape. 2015. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/332945-overview. Accessed May 25, 2016.
 Srikulmontree T. Osteoarthritis. Am Coll Rheumatol. http://www.rheumatology.org/I-Am-A/Patient-Caregiver/Diseases-Conditions/Osteoarthritis/. Accessed May 25, 2016.
 Lawrence R, Felson D. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States: Part II. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58(1):26-35.
 Oliviero F, Ramonda R, Punzi L. New horizons in osteoarthritis. Swiss Med Wkly. 2010;140:w13098.
 Lee AS, Ellman MB, Yan D, et al. A current review of molecular mechanisms regarding osteoarthritis and pain. Gene. 2013;527(2):440-447.
 WebMd. Psoriasis – Topic Overview. 2015. http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/psoriasis/understanding-psoriasis-basics. Accessed May 26, 2016.
 World Health Organization. Psoriasis.; 2013. http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/EB133/B133_5-en.pdf. Accessed May 26, 2016.
 Langham S, Langham J, Goertz H-P, Ratcliffe M. Large-scale, prospective, observational studies in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: A systematic and critical review. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2011;11(1):32. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-11-32.
 American Academy of Dermatology. Psoriasis. 2015. https://www.aad.org/media-resources/stats-and-facts/conditions/psoriasis. Accessed May 26, 2016.
 Lui H. Plaque Psoriasis. Medscape. 2015. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1108072-overview. Accessed May 26, 2016.
 Gladman DD. Psoriatic arthritis. Dermatol Ther. 22(1):40-55.
 Angelillo MP. Psoriatic Arthritis. In: All About Arthritis. Vol iUniverse; 2009:40-45. https://books.google.com/books?id=_Gch5mIlSsYC&pgis=1. Accessed May 25, 2016.
 National Psoriasis Foundation. Tests to confirm diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. 2015. https://www.psoriasis.org/psoriatic-arthritis/diagnosis/tests-to-confirm. Accessed May 15, 2016.
 National Psoriasis Foundation. About Psoriatic Arthritis. 2015. https://www.psoriasis.org/about-psoriatic-arthritis. Accessed May 25, 2016.
 Genetics Home Reference. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Psoriatic arthritis. August 2015. http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/psoriatic-arthritis. Accessed May 25, 2016.
 Jemec GBE. Hidradenitis Suppurativa. N Engl J Med. 2012:366:158-164.
 Dufour DN, Emtestam L, Jemec GB. Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Common and Burdensome, Yet Under-Recognised, Inflammatory Skin Disease. Postgrad Med J. 2014; 90 (1062):216-21.
 Esmann S, Jemec GB. Psychosocial impact of hidradenitis suppurativa: a qualitative study. Acta dermato-venereologica. 2011;91(3):328-332.
 L.J. Margesson, F.W. Danby. Hidradenitis suppurativa. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2014; 28: 1013-1027.
 Dhaou BB, Boussema F, Aydi Z, Baili L, Rokbani L. Hidradenitis suppurativa (Verneuil’s disease). J Saudi Soc Dermatology & Dermatol Surg. 2013;17:1-5.
 American Academy of Dermatology. Hidradenitis suppurativa. Available at: https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/painful-skin-joints/hidradenitis-suppurativa. Accessed May 25, 2016.
 Collier F, Smith RC, Morton, CA. Diagnosis and management of hidradenitis suppurativa. BMJ. 2013;346.
 U.S. National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. Crohn’s Disease. 2015. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMHT0022801/. Accessed May 25, 2016.
 Kappelman MD, Moore KR, Allen JK, Cook SF. Recent trends in the prevalence of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis in a commercially insured US population. DigDis Sci. 2013;58:519-525.
 Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America. What is Crohn’s Disease? 2015. http://www.ccfa.org/what-are-crohns-and-colitis/what-is-crohns-disease/. Accessed May 25, 2016.
 Molodecky NA, Soon IS, Rabi DM, et al. Increasing incidence and prevalence of the inflammatory bowel diseases with time, based on systematic review. Gastroenterology. 2012;142(1):46-54.e42; quiz e30.
 Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America. The Facts About Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 2014. http://www.ccfa.org/assets/pdfs/updatedibdfactbook.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2016.
 U.S. National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. Ulcerative Colitis. 2015. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ulcerativecolitis.html. Accessed May 26, 2016.
 Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America. What is Ulcerative Colitis? 2015. http://www.ccfa.org/what-are-crohns-and-colitis/what-is-ulcerative-colitis/. Accessed May 26, 2016.
 Mayo Clinic. Ulcerative colitis. 2015. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ulcerative-colitis/basics/definition/con-20043763. Accessed May 26, 2016.
 Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America. Living with Ulcerative Colitis. http://www.ccfa.org/assets/pdfs/living_with_uc_brochure_final.pdf. Accessed May 26, 2016.
 Maidhof W, Hilas O. Lupus: an overview of the disease and management options. P T. 2012;37:240-249.
 Mehrian R, et al. Synergistic effect between IL-10 and bcl-2 genotypes in determining susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 1998 Apr;41(4):596-602
 D’Cruz DP. Systemic lupus erythematosus. BMJ. 2006;332(7546):890-894.